Main Directory |
Next: Pretest

Unit 4: Developing Instructional Skills

Welcome to the study unit on instructional skills. This unit contains both suggestions for setting up and delivering a tutoring session and examples of tutoring plans and evaluation forms. The evaluation forms are geared to assist the paraeducator in self evaluating and improving their tutoring skills.


After completing this unit and its activities the paraeducator should expect to be able to:

  1. Explain the importance of individual and small group instruction and describe the role of the paraeducator in tutoring.
  2. Describe the purpose and components of an instructional lesson plan.
  3. Identify methods for building rapport with students.
  4. Prepare effectively for a tutoring session.
  5. Present directions and information effectively during instruction.
  6. Describe methods for managing individual and small group instruction.
  7. Identify methods for reinforcing students during tutoring activities.
  8. Evaluate the effectiveness of a tutoring session.
  9. Describe techniques for reporting the results of the instructional activity to the teacher.
  10. Discuss criteria for changing a lesson, terminating a lesson and handling emergency situations during a tutoring session.



- Pretest


-Lesson 1: Rationale for Tutoring & Tutor Training

-Lesson 2: Tutoring Responsibilities
  • Teacher responsibilities
  • Paraeducator responsibilities
-Lesson 3: Preparing for Tutoring
  • Tutoring tasks
  • Arrange the environment
  • Preparation
  • Supervision
-Lesson 4: Reading and Using the Lesson Plan
  • Importance of objectives and goals
  • Following the lesson plan
  • Teacher supervision
-Lesson 5: Knowing the Student
  • Communicate respect and caring
  • Know the student's interests
  • Know the student's skills
-Lesson 6: Establishing and Maintaining Rapport
  • Communicate the lesson plan
  • Encouraging the student
  • Conducting the lesson
-Lesson 7: Establishing and Maintaining Attention
  • Excite students about learning
  • Eliminate competing stimuli
  • Use signals
-Lesson 8: Presenting Information
  • Giving directions
  • Modeling
  • Providing Feedback
  • Questioning procedures
  • Requests for help
-Lesson 9: Reinforcing Students
  • Verbal reinforcement
  • Nonverbal reinforcement
  • Reasons for utilizing reinforcement
-Lesson 10: Terminating a Lesson
  • Importance of closure
-Lesson 11: Deviating from the Lesson Plan
  • When to deviate
  • Alternative plans
  • Report problems to the teacher
-Lesson 12: Observing and Recording Student Progress
  • Record keeping
  • Observing learner progress
  • Recording progress
-Lesson 13: Evaluating the Tutoring Session
  • Assessing tutoring skills using self-evaluation instruments


Sample Documents

-Instructional Planning Form

-Sample Tutoring Plan

-Self Evaluation of a Tutoring Session

-Checklist for Tutors

-Evaluating the Tutoring Session

-Tutoring Observation Checklist

Learning Activities

- Activity 1: Practice Maintaining Attention

-Activity 2: Practice Terminating a Lesson

- Activity 3: Reinforcing Students

Unit 4 Post Test

-Review Questions

-Post Test

Additional Information & Activities

- Additional Discussion Questions

- Additional Learning Activities

- Suggestions for Further Reading

Related Practicum Activities

- Practicum Activities